Long-term proofing is a process in which yeast dough is left for several hours or even days at a low temperature (in the refrigerator or on the balcony). Prolonged proofing allows the dough to become saturated with the aroma of yeast, develop a complex taste and improve texture. Prolonged proofing also makes the dough easier to shape and reduces the second rise time.
Active dry yeast https://greenelly.com/ is better suited for long-term proofing, as it acts slower and more consistently than instant yeast. Instant dry yeast can cause the dough to over-proof, which is the production of excess gas and alcohol, which can damage the structure of the dough and produce an off-flavor.
For long-term proofing, you can also use fresh yeast, but in smaller quantities than for regular proofing. Fresh yeast has a higher vitality and strength than dry yeast, so it can also cause dough to over-proof when stored for long periods of time.
When proofing for a long time, it is also important to take into account the amount of sugar in the dough, since sugar is food for the yeast and speeds up its work. The more sugar in the dough, the less yeast is needed and the shorter the proofing should be.
In general, for long proofing it is recommended to use about 1% active dry yeast or 3% fresh yeast of the total flour weight and reduce this amount as you increase the amount of sugar. For example, if the recipe specifies 500 grams of flour and 50 grams of sugar, then for long proofing you need to take 3-4 grams of active dry yeast or 9-12 grams of fresh yeast.